The world Geological Park
Wudalianchi, which was placed on the list of the first set of national key scenic spots by the State Council in 1983, is a state-level nature reserve. It was rated as one of the forty best national tourism resorts in 1991 and was named "the Mineral Water Town of China" in 1996.
Wudalianchi scenic spot, located on the bank of Nemoer River, covers 1068 square kilometers. It is composed of volcanoes of new and old period, five volcano barrier lakes (Wudalianchi), "Stone Dragon" of more than 60 square kilometers (basalt mesa) and low-temperature cold springs with high value of health care. There are rich tourism resources, including a world of green hills, clear water, various lavas and magical medicine spring. That is called China’s Natural Volcanic Park, the Textbook on Volcano and well-known Resort of Tourism and Sanitaria.
14 volcanoes of Wudalianchi are arranged like the shape of Chinese"#", including Yaoquan Mountain ,East and West Long Men Mountain, Wohu Mountain, South and North Gelaqiu Mountain, East and West Jiaodebu Mountain, Molabu Mountain, Wei Mountain, Xiaogu Mountain, Heilong Mountain and Huoshao Mountain. 12 of them erupted ten thousands of years ago, even several hundred thousands of years ago. Two relatively younger volcanoes named Heilong Mountain and Huoshao Mountain were formed between 1719 and 1721.That was written in history book "Heilongjiang Unauthorized Biography" and "Ninggu Tower Brief Biography". After the volcano erupted, the rolling lava divided Bai River (the tributary of Nemoer River) into five parts that are linked like beads. They are volcanic barrier lakes. They are the first pond , the second pond, the third pond, the fourth pond and the fifth pond. They are called Wudalianchi by people. Five ponds, the total length is more than 20 kilometers and the area of lakes is up to 40 square kilometers, are connected by underground rivers.14 volcanoes, decorated with five ponds whose water is clear, and the vast basalt mesa constitute a set of unique landscape between mountains, rivers and stones.
There is a beautiful legend about the mineral water of Wudalianchi. It is said that there were towering old trees and thick weeds in Wudalianchi long before. A hunter from Oroqen shot a sika deer. The sika deer ran with the wound and the hunter ran after it following the trace of blood. To the hunter’s surprise, the sika deer did not run towards the deep mountain, but ran into a pond. On the bank, the hunter saw that the deer in the water washed its wound and licked it with the tongue. After it returned to the bank, the blood stopped, then it ran into the deep mountain at a brisk pace .The hunter came to the pond and held some water with his hands, then took a mouthful, he was full of vitality at once. From then on, every time there was something wrong with the hunter, he would came to the pond and drank the spring water, he would be fine at once. So the spring was called Holy Water. On May 5th of the lunar calendar of every year, people will come here early in order to drink "Zero Hour Water". It is said that the people who drink "Zero Hour water" can get rid of misfortunes and illnesses and live longer.
Although it is a legend, in fact, the water of Wudalianchi can help people keep fit, treat and prevent diseases. According to the scientists, the mineral water here contains more than 40 kinds of necessary trace elements for the human body. It can compare with the world-renowned French "Vichy" and the Russian "Caucasus" mineral water. The three kinds of mineral water are called the world’s three major cold spring.
The landscape is magical and unique here. More than 100 scenic spots have been found in Wudalianchi scenic zone. They are divided into seven major scenic spots. At present, more than 70 sites have been developed and mainly distribute in Huoshao Mountain scenic spot. Yaoquan Mountain scenic spot and Jiaodebu Mountain scenic spot.
1. Yishen Garden: Yishen (means "to be good for your health") Garden is the largest scenic spot of Yaoquan Mountain scenic spot. It is composed of Yishen Kiosk, Huan Corridor, North Park, Waterfall, Yaoquan Lake, Huanhu Road,Beiyin Spring.
Yishen Kiosk: Yishen Kiosk is an architecture which imitates the ancient ones with the northern classical garden style. The stele and the couplet on it are all written by the former governor of Heilongjiang Province named Chen Lei. The south antithetical couplet is "Reflecting on the source while drinking and singing". "Rejoicing over the scenes while touring and playing". The north antithetical couplet is "Building your body to live happily for longer". "Exercising the will to keep the energy forever".
The mineral water of Beiyin Spring is heavy calcium-magnesium carbonate mineral water which is rich in more than 40 kinds of necessary microelements for the human body. You can drink the mineral water and bathe in it. It has a significant effect on digestive system, nervous system, urinary system, cardiovascular system, hair loss of nerve, a variety of skin diseases and gynecological diseases. The mineral water is called "Holy water" and "Magical water "and it is rare and precious in the world.
Yaoquan Lake: Yaoquan Lake is 900 meters long from south to north, 300 meters wide from east to west and the deepest part is up to 7 meters. The basalt mesa was left around it because of volcanic eruption. Yaoquan Mountain, Bijia Mountain that reflect on the Yanquan Lake and green hills and clear waters constitute a beautiful picture.
2. Yaoquan Mountain: Yaoquan Mountain is composed of Erlong Yan, Yaoquan Hill and Zhongling Temple. Erlong Yan is located at the foot of Yaoquan Hill. The water is Mountain spring water. In the past, because the spring mouth is very small, the pressure on the spring is quite strong. The spring water squirted as if two silver dragons rose high into the air, so the people named it "Erlong Yan". The spring water of Erlong Yan is clear and tasty, so it is good water resource to produce beer, beverages and cosmetics. It is said the water of Erlong Yan can make the people sober-minded and eyes clear. So the people who come here to climb the mountain all wash their faces and eyes first with the mineral water.
Yaoquan Mountain erupted about 300,000 years ago. The volcano is 355.8 meters above the sea level and 60.8 meters above the ground. Yaoquan Mountain is relatively small , but its form is standard compared with other volcanoes in this zone .There are two ways to mount the mountain. One is the stone road on the south slope, the other is the cement Road on the west slope. On the way, people can go through to Zhongling Temple by bus.
3. Beautiful scenery of lakes: Five lakes of Wudalianchi are connected like beads. There is lava at the bottom of each lake and strange rocks on the bank. The water of lakes is so clear that people can see the fish swim in the lake.,
In summer, the flowers are in full bloom and green grass is overlapping. In winter, the surface of the lake is calm and clear like a mirror. The only "Wen Bo" near the first pond is full of steam. That is rare and unique scenery of volcanic weir-block lake. Five tranquil and sparkling lakes look like five bright pearls that the fairy throws from the palace in the heaven. They distribute among 14 volcanoes that form a crescent-shaped lake whose ponds are linked.
Five lakes of Wudalianchi are more than 20 kilometers long with the water capacity of 170,000,000 cubic meters or so and a total area of more than 40 square kilometers. Five lakes are connected by the underground rivers. The water resources are adequate and will never dry up throughout the year. The high-quality water, rich oxygen and sunshine, and various living things are good for the growth of fish. The fish is big and fat in the third pond. The local fishermen said that there is a monster in the third pond. It has appeared above the water many times, but it has never hurt people. The legend passes down from the past to today, which makes the the third pond a little mysterious.
The first pond with the water area of only 0.11 square kilometers is the smallest one in five ponds of Wudalianchi. The blue water of the first pond is calm and clear. Mountains and clouds are reflected in the lake .Tourists acclaim the wonderful scenery that fish swims between mountains and lakes, and the moving clouds are reflected in the lake. The rock banks of the first pond and the second pond twist and look like a lot of winding stone dragons going into the lake. Some of them hold up their heads and show different kinds of shapes against the water, forming various stone dunes, stone flowers, stone curtains. They look like small and exquisite miniascapes that are sculptured by the great nature.
What is more amazing is that five lakes present different colors. The water of the first and the second pond is light brown with light green. The third pond is blue with light purple. The water of the fourth pond is yellow and yellow with green. The fifth pond is green with light yellow. It was a mystery in the past that the water has different colors. In recent years, according to scientific study and analysis of test samples, the result is that the lava here contains a variety of mineral and because the lakes has different minerals, they will show different colors when the minerals are dissolved in the water. In addition, that different colors of sediment and algae at the bottom of the lakes set off each other, also makes the lakes show a variety of colors. Another reason is the weather. When the intensity and angle of sunshine are different, the pond will also present different colors. The color of the lake is not the same, even though it is in the same day. The rising sun adds a veil of orange red for the ponds in the morning. The blazing sun adds a veil of golden yellow for the ponds, when it directly shines the surface of the water at noon. The setting sun dyes the sky and the surface of the lake red. The scenery is wonderful at night. The bright moon, calm surface of the lake and the glittering stars like pearls add a more mysterious veil for Wudalianchi.
4. Heilong Mountain: Heilong Mountain is also called Laohei Mountain. It erupted in 1719 and erupted again in 1721.According to historical records, it has erupted six times. Heilong Mountain, which is 515.9 meters above the sea level and 165.9 meters above the ground, is the second largest volcano in Wudalianchi. The volcanic landform is so complete and the landscape is so extraordinary that it is called precious volcano geological museum by geologists. Heilong Mountain is mainly composed of "Stone Sea", "Water Curtain Cave", "Fairy Palace", "Volcano Forest", "Crater" and other scenic spots. The diameter of the crater is 350 meters and the depth of the crater is 145 meters
The southern slope of Heilong Mountain is covered with lapilli (also called volcanic ash). The lapilli is the product of gas eruption. When the magma is full of plenty of gases, the lava will be erupted like foam. After the lava is condensed, it scatters around the volcano as the wind. It is inferred that the wind was blowing from the north or northwest when volcano erupted according to the distribution of lapilli.
The "Stone Sea" in Wudalianchi is rare volcanic lava wonder in the world. The beauty of the landscapes is not only in clear waters, beautiful springs, but also in a continuous stretch of black lava that is as vast as the sea. So it is called "Stone Sea". When the volcano erupted, the magmata spewed and condensed, then "stone sea" was formed. The "Stone Sea" is extremely beautiful scenery in Wudalianchi scenic zone. It is said that "stone sea" can compare with the landscape of the most famous volcano named Mount Vesuvius of Italy in the World.
5. Fairy Palace: "Fairy Palace" is a volcanic lava cave which is 150 meters in length. The volcano, like an architect, constructs a large number of rare scenery in Wudalianchi. The lava tunnel (also called lava cave) is one of them. Some of lava caves are hidden on the mountainside and some are buried under the stratum. They are mysterious and unpredictable with various patterns. There is some ice in several caves and the water flows in other caves throughout the year. At present, the Fairy palace is the largest one of the lava caves ever found.
There is a wonderful legend about Fairy Palace. It is said that a mother and her daughter, who had ever lived in a place which was very far from the Heilong Mountain, lived with each other. They lived a poor life and fed on bran and edible wild herbs. The mother broke down from constant overwork, so she could not walk any more. The daughter was very sad and determined to cure her mother’s illness. One day, the girl came to the Heilong Mountain and gathered medical herbs with a basket. All of a sudden, the weather changed. The lightning was accompanied by peals of thunder. It was raining and blowing hard, so the girl had no choice but to go into the cave. But the huge snake coiled itself at the mouth of the cave. The girl was so frightened that she cried. At that time, a beautiful woman cut off the snake with the sword in her hand and spent a night with the girl. Early in the morning of the following day, the rain stopped. When the girl woke up, she did not see that beautiful woman, only to see some herbs near her. The girl went home with herbs and her mother’s illness was cured immediately. After that, the cave was called Fairy Palace.
According to the research, when the surface of the magma solidified, the moving speed of the magma in lower part was relatively slow. So the cave was formed and now we see the lava tunnel. A lot of caves like Fairy Palace have been found. For example, the "Crystal Palace" at the foot of Xiaojiaodebu Mountain is one of them. There is ice in the cave all the year round.It is an unique scene of volcano park in Wudalianchi.
6. Huoshao Mountain: Huoshao Mountain, which is 4 kilometers away from Heilong Mountain, is also called Lotus Mountain.
Huoshao Mountain is a little younger than Heilong Mountain, but they erupted in the same period (about 270 years ago).There are many similarities between Huoshao Mountain and Heilong Mountain. Hardly has their lava been weathered. There is more pumice and the moving trace of the magma is very clear. Huoshao Mountain, which is 390.3 meters above the sea level and 73 meters above the ground, is lower than Laohei Mountain. Huoshao Mountain is low and small, but its volcanic features are very typical. The volcanic bombs, the lapilli and the volcano cinders scatter around the cone of the volcano. Some of volcanic bombs are as round as steamed bread and some are as long as ribbon. Some are oval or spindle-shaped. The images are vivid and very interesting.
7. Crystal Palace: Crystal Palace, located in the birch forest of Xijiaodebu Mountain, is 8 meters under the ground, and 150 meters in length, covering an area of 2500 square meters. There is ice that looks like ice carvings in the cave throughout the year. So it is called ice cave or Crystal Palace. The exotic rocks lying on the walls and the roof are covered with ice flowers. Even if the burning sun bakes the land in extremely hot summer, it is still the world of ice and snow. In the cave, the temperature difference between inside of the cave and outside of the cave is 40 centigrade or so. That is so amazing
8. Wen Bo: Wen Bo, which is more than 200 meters in length, 50 meters or so on width and about 2 meters in depth, is the unique landscape in Wudalianchi .There is clean water in it all the year round. The people, who wear leather hats on the heads, wool scarves around the necks and have cotton coats, still feel cold when the temperature falls to between -30℃ and -40℃ in severe winter of the north. On the contrary, there are blue ripples on the surface of Wen Bo and the wild ducks play in the water leisurely. That shows a marvelous spectacle.
Wen Bo doesn’t freeze throughout the year. In the third nine-day period after Winter Solstice (the coldest day), its temperature in the north is 8℃ to 11℃. The water in the south is 4℃ to 5℃ in the south and the temperature in the north is up to 14℃. It seems that it is a maze that the south and the north are so close, but the temperature difference between them is up to 50℃.
The hydro-geological workers speculate that there is a geothermal exit in the north of Wen Bo and the hot water from there blends with the cold water on the basalt, then they flow into Wen Bo. That makes the water maintain above 0℃ without ice and surrounded by the mists and steam throughout the year.